Ingredients of Panamin and Their Function
CaCO3 = (CO2 +CaO)
MgCO3 = (CO2 +MgO)
+ micro and macro elements
We created something special by combining major ingredients like CALCIUM CARBONATE, MAGNESIUM CARBONATE, SILICON DIOXIDE with many micro and macro elements: POTASSIUM, ZINC, IRON, PHOSPHORUS, and the NATURALLY bound CARBON DIOXIDE from the unique Austrian deposits.
Thanks to its natural origin and extremely fine particles, the ingredients of PANAMIN® are absorbed completely and stock - piled in the crops. During penetration into the leaves, the natural decomposition of the two carbonates (calcium and magnesium) results in the storing of the naturally bound CARBON DIOXIDE that speeds up and extends the photosynthesis.
Convex neuration – a sign of sped-up photosynthesis and maximum absorption of nutrients
Using the most innovative technologies allowed for the introduction of valuable, natural nutrients to the plant, that was impossible
1 kg PANAMIN® = 160 l gas CO2!
CO2 = Photosynthesis (CO2 = C+O2)
Schematic representation of coagulation: Feeding plants with PANAMIN® improves photosynthesis. The effect of this fertilization is further intensified by the nutrients (CaO, Fe, Si, Mn, Mg) it contains.
Basic benefits from additional feeding with natural CO2
The higher the level of CO2 in the leaves is, the more balanced the Calcium level is
During the summer, the concentration of CO2 in air is minimal. PANAMIN® assists the growth with its natural bound CO2, even in dry climates
Multi-fold sped-up photosynthesis, as well as extended period of photosynthesis
It has been proven scientifically that at temperatures above 28°C plants are unable to photosynthesize in the period between 10:00 – 17:00. Because of the stock pile of naturally bound carbon dioxide, plants continue to photosynthesize for additional 15 days even under such conditions.
Growth is controlled by light. Because of the light’s blue and red spectrum, photosynthesis is best in the morning and in the evening.
Increase of glucose synthesis that makes plants tolerant to frost and freezing
Organic function of PANAMIN®
- Net and gross velocity of photosynthesis, system 1 and 2
- Turgor, adenozin triphosphatase, Calvin cycle, ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/ oxygenase
- Strengthening of the cellular walls (chloroplasts and chlorophyll)
- Solution of microelements: Fe, Zn, Mg and more!
- Immune system
- Water cycle: Xylem/ Phloem, transpiration/ respiration
- Biomass and root system, synthesis of glucose
The regulation of the stomata as a result of stockpiling of CARBON DIOXIDE reduces moisture transpiration and makes plants drought-resistant
The availability of sufficient amount of CO2 results in prolonged closing of the stomata which prevents moisture loss and penetration by viruses.
To produce one molecule of CO2, the plant consumes 100 molecules of water. The plant consists of 80 – 90% water.
Silicon dioxide (SiO2)
Effect of PANAMIN® on plant immunity
- Silicon is the second best distributed chemical element on Earth and one of the most important elements for plant development
- Silicon dioxide improves cell structure
- Silicon dioxide strongly reduces fungi pathogen growth
- Tolerance to stress and resistance to pests (diseases and foes)
- Silicon dioxide stimulates energy levels and root system (viruses do not penetrate through stomata)
- Bamboo contains 77% of silicon dioxide. It is both strong and flexible (see Triticum L.)
No matter of whether the plant is subjected to biotic or abiotic stress, the first response is the production of one of the basic phytohormones – SILICON ACID (SA) in its struggles to survive.
Si during abiotic stress
A number of studies have confirmed that the effect of SILICON increases the water content and the amount of dry substance in plants, as well as the role it plays in enhancing the tolerability to drought and other types of abiotic stress by triggering the plants’ anti-oxidant mechanisms. It has also been proven that Si maintains optimal water potential in the cell by regulating its osmotic pressure, as well as on chlorophyll biosynthesis.
Mainly, the plants treated with Si increase their drought tolerance through better accumulation of CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2), low transpiration levels, preservation of water leaf potential through Si’s direct influence on stomata regulation. It is also important that Si plays an important role in absorbing and transporting nutrients in the event of a drought. It also increases the quantity of POTASSIUM and CALCIUM in the leaves and roots and improves the absorption of PHOSPHORUS, POTASSIUM, CALCIUM, IRON and MANGANESE.
Si during biotic stress
Studies have proven that Si enhances plant’s immunity to diseases and insects via direct participation in the stability mechanisms. Once accumulated in plants, it creates mechanical and physical barriers to growing and development of insects.
- the strong crowding of trichoma (leaf pappi) and increase of their strength, as well as a double cuticula layer - which impede the attack, mobility, proliferation and feeding-up of pests.
- the Si-formed double layer acts as a protective factor for direct penetration of pathogens through the cuticula. Si participates directly in stomata regulation which reduces the possibility for pathogen penetration into plant tissue.
The specially chosen silicon contained in PANAMIN® increases the available NITROGEN and POTASSIUM in plants and releases it slowly – a kind of buffer. It also increases the water-storage capacity by 300 times.
Calcium and Magnesium
Without calcium there is no plant growth, without magnesium there is no crop quality and resistance.
- Cell walls and membranes are stronger
- Roots grow more quickly and are stronger
- The value of pH in the plant is optimal
- Calcium and magnesium are very heavy and slow elements (there is no transport from roots to leaves)
In nature, calcium exists only in bound form in mineral structures and must be separated.
In this regard, we carried out extensive research with PANAMIN® and we can confirm that the CaO and MgO contained in PANAMIN® are of the utmost quality and in the best absorbing form.
It is a known fact that cultures with 0.5% Ca content are considered to be sufficiently supplied. Because plants extract nutrients from the soil, the pH level and Ca content of the soil are of the utmost importance. Ca transportation inside the plants is difficult. Thus, a continuous Ca supply is more than logical.
Magnesium attributes to plants’ proper growth, strength, elasticity and tolerance to stress
It assists in the absorption of calcium and other micro and macro elements. Magnesium is an extremely important element for photosynthesis and a main component in the structure of chlorophyll that maintains leaves’ green color. Magnesium deficit results in yield reduction and higher sensitivity to plant diseases.
Calcium and magnesium are important nutrients for all crops because they
- Increase immunity and tolerance to any kind of plant stress
- Increase the quality of the crops
- Both elements have synergistic
pH values and soil structure
The effect of PANAMIN® in soils with improper (low/high) pH levels is easily explained. We were able prove that the low pH level may be increased and the high pH level may be decreased. And all at the same time. The seeming paradox consists in the fact that in lime - rich soils, such as the ones in Crimea, reducing the very high level of pH may be achieved by only increasing the lime content. The CO2 in our product reduces the levels to the CaO level of interaction and also increases the CaO level to the CO2 level of interaction. The constant ratio of CaO to CO2 makes this possible. Jointly, the two active substances provide an optimal pH level of the soil that ultimately affects the plant.
Apart from this, we know that the pH level may be very inhomogeneous. Across one hectare, the pH level may vary widely. With PANAMIN®, you will be able to equalize different pH levels and above all, you will be able to increase them optimally. And when this is achieved, all microelements contained in the soil are available for release.
Scientific calculations show that fine grinding creates a large active - exchange surface. Thus, with roughly ground lime at 1 mm, one gram may cover a surface area of 49 cm2. However with PANAMIN AGRO® this figure is up to 800 m2 by one gram, with the active 90 milliards of PANAMIN® particles/m2. Carbonates and silicates are soluble only in acid soils, and with these types of limes the degree of grinding is of the utmost importance.
Micro and macro elements
With PANAMIN®, we remineralize soil and plants in a natural way and ensure the availability of the chemical elements in the plants by optimizing the pH level.
Most nutrients for plants feature optimal solubility within the pH range between 5,5 and 7,0. With increasing pH level, the available nitrogen (N), sulphur (S), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg), and Molybdenum (Mb) also increase. On the contrary, the solubility of the micronutrients iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) decreases, therefore, with pH levels above 7,0, their shortage may occur.
With the application of PANAMIN® the optimal pH level is increased. The plant receives all the available natural micro and macro elements from PANAMIN®.